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Schizophrenia Adoption Studies
Aug 29, 2006 . Patrick Sullivan cites twin and adoption studies as justification for searching for schizophrenia genes [1]. In his words, “Both adoption and twin .
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1564288/

WHITE PINE BLISTER RUST

Description

Limber white pine blister rust, Anna Schoettle

Adoption Studies -Schizophrenia- Schizophrenia causes-
May 12, 2009 . Adoption Studies -Schizophrenia- Schizophrenia causes- . Why are some twin pairs concordant for schizophrenia whereas others are not?
http://www.health.am/psy/more/adoption-studies/


Limber rust, Anna Schoettle

Twin, Adoption, and Family Studies
Twin studies are a vastly important tool in dissecting the nature versus nurture . The first adoption study performed on schizophrenia showed that family .
http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/haimowitz.html

Nature vs. Nuture - Twin Study Overview
I have also examined the disorder of schizophrenia and its relationship to this . Twin and adoption studies can tell the extent to which family resemblance is due .
http://www.pages.drexel.edu/~rm35/

Referred Literature: 1, 85

Disease cycle & alternate hosts

Bristlecone Krummholz with ribes, Anna Schoettle

Schizophrenia.com - Schizophrenia Causes and Prevention
A Healthy Family Social Environment May Reduce Schizophrenia Risk by 86% . Because twin studies show approximately a 50% risk of developing schizophrenia in . Previous adoption studies have found conclusive evidence that genetics .
http://www.schizophrenia.com/familyenv1.htm

Using Twin and Adoption Studies - Example Study - YouTube
Oct 8, 2008 . View the full Interactive Tutorial at: http://www.phgfoundation.org/tutorials/ twinAdoption/7.html. In a study looking at classical schizophrenia, .
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M2HXoxfHBlw

Whitebark and Ribes, Anna Schoettle

Rust on ribes

Twin study - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Twin studies help disentangle the relative importance of environmental and genetic . An independent analysis of the Danish adoption study of schizophrenia.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twin_study

Schizophrenia Research Forum: Large Family Study Links Genetics of ...
Jan 27, 2009 . The results of the family/adoption study by Lichtenstein et al. . between schizophrenia and bipolar/mania was 0.60 in the family/twin study and .
http://www.schizophreniaforum.org/new/detail.asp?id=1488

Rust on whitebark, Anna Schoettle

Schizophrenia and Genetics: Research Update | Psych Central
Aug 17, 2011 . Early Research: Family, Twin & Adoption Studies. To determine whether genetics plays any role in schizophrenia, decades ago, researchers .
http://psychcentral.com/lib/2011/schizophrenia-and-genetics-research-update/all/1/

RLO: Using Twin and Adoption Studies - Example of an Adoption ...
Jan 22, 2008 . RLO: Using Twin and Adoption Studies . In a study looking at classical schizophrenia, Kety and Ingraham, identified adoptees with .
http://www.ucel.ac.uk/rlos/genetics/twinAdoption/7.html

Neuroscience for Kids - Schizophrenia
Evidence for a genetic component comes from twin studies. . background of people who were adopted at an early age and who later developed schizophrenia.
http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/schiz.html

Rust in limber, Anna Schoettle

Interactive Tutorial: Using Twin and Adoption Studies
Interactive Tutorial: Using Twin and Adoption Studies. Introduction . In a study looking at classical schizophrenia, Kety and Ingraham*, identified adoptees with .
http://www.phgfoundation.org/tutorials/twinAdoption/7.html

A review of the evidence from family, twin and adoption studies for a ...
Jul 30, 2010 . Family, twin and adoption studies have provided major evidence for the role of genetics . schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease (for a review .
http://conferences.thehillgroup.com/obssr/Si2010/ReadingMaterials/Family,%20Twin,%20Adoption%20Studies%20Genetic%20Contribution%20to%20Adult%20Psychiatric%20Disorders.pdf

The Genetics of Schizophrenia: A Current, Genetic-Epidemiologic ...
recommend a balanced research approach to the genetics of schizophrenia that includes tradi- tional methods of family, twin, and adoption studies as well as .
http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/2/261.full.pdf

home

Referred Literature: 1, 127

Impacts

Rocky Mountain bristlecone, Julie Kray

Schizophrenia: Medical students are taught it's all in the genes, but ...
When citing evidence for the genetic basis of schizophrenia, psychiatry textbooks invariably mention the twin studies and adoption studies. As a group, these .
http://psychintegrity.org/research/schizophrenia.doc


The Aetiology of Schizophrenia
Family, twin and adoption studies have suggested that genetics play a major role in the transmission of schizophrenia. Irwing Gottesman compiled over 40 .
http://priory.com/psych/aetioschiz.htm

Schizophrenia: Biological Explanations
This Hub breaks the biological explanation of schizophrenia down in three easy . To investigate the link between twin and adoption studies are carried out with .
http://earny123.hubpages.com/hub/Schizophrenia-Biological-Explanations

Bristlecone vista, , Anna Schoettle

The Fallacy of The 50% Concordance Rate for Schizophrenia in ...
When discussing schizophrenia twin studies psychiatrists often report a . of IQ, the genetics of criminality, the schizophrenia adoption studies-but his most .
http://human-nature.com/nibbs/03/joseph.html

Causes of schizophrenia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Adoption studies have also indicated a somewhat increased risk in those with . A Japanese case study of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia (one .
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Causes_of_schizophrenia

Schizophrenia - LONI: Laboratory of Neuro Imaging
Twin and adoption studies support that both genetic and harmful environmental events are contributors to schizophrenia. Even though schizophrenia has a large .
http://www.loni.ucla.edu/Research/Projects/Schizophrenia.shtml

Not in Their Genes: A Critical View of the Genetics of Attention ...
family studies, 14 schizophrenia twin studies, and 6 schizophrenia adoption studies concluded that their findings supported the existence of a genetic .
http://www.iacaf.org/pdfs/Not_in_Their_Genes.pdf

Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General - Chapter 4
Family, twin, and adoption studies support the role of genetic influences in schizophrenia (Kendler & Diehl, 1993; McGuffin et al., 1995; Portin & Alanen, 1997).
http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/mentalhealth/chapter4/sec4_1.html

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Referred Literature: 85,95,1

Symptoms

Sugar pine, Bohun B. Kinloch Jr.

Schizophrenia and heredity Why the emperor has no genes
articles, and textbook chapters, is that it is axiomatic. This position is based on the acceptance of the results of schizophrenia family, twin and adoption studies.
http://jayjoseph.net/docs/models.pdf

Understanding Schizophrenia: Signs, Symptoms, and Causes
Twin and adoption studies suggest that inherited genes make a person vulnerable to schizophrenia and then environmental factors act on this vulnerability to .
http://helpguide.org/mental/schizophrenia_symptom.htm

Some general symptoms include:

Branch swelling - Small branches produce a spindle - shaped swelling with a new infection
Branch flagging - Branches die distal to cankers; needles turn orange & fall off
Orange Blisters - Blisters of orange spores on cankers (in spring) and branch swellings
Cankers - Diamond - shaped cankers on trunks; greenish - yellow to orange margin (mature)
Resin flow - Branches and trunk on advanced infections can have streams of resin
Chewing - Rodent - feeding on cankers

A2 Psychology
Twins that are adopted into different families still tend to be reared similarly and . Many twin studies compare the concordance rates for schizophrenia in MZ .
http://psychology4a.com/Psychopathology.htm

Limber Pine

Rust on limber, Anna SchoettleRust on limber, Anna Schoettle

Rocky Mountain Bristlecone Pine

Rust on Rocky Mountain Bristlecone Pine, Anna SchoettleRust on Rocky Mountain Bristlecone Pine, Kelly Burns

twin and adoption studies in schizophreniabark Pine

Rust on Whitebark Pine, Anna SchoettleRust on Whitebark Pine

Foxtail Pine

Rust on Foxtail Pine, Dean BurtonRust on Foxtail Pine stem canker, Dean Burton

Great Basin Bristlecone pine

No infection have been found in wild trees at this time (2005)

For more information:
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Resources: 104, 124, 126

Current distribution  

Great Basin Bristlecone pine

 

History of Infection

MOLECULAR AND POPULATION GENETICS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
ily, twin, and adoption studies show consistently that the biological relatives of people with schizophrenia themselves show higher rates of schizophrenia and .
http://www.acnp.org/asset.axd?id=1a4819c8-1eab-4189-a587-4dd6eb572764

Genetic Studies of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder
Abstract | FAMILY, TWIN, AND ADOPTION STUDIES . ASSOCIATION STUDIES | SCHIZOPHRENIA .
http://focus.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleid=53190

History of blister rust infection

Timeline of twin and adoption studies in schizophrenia Events

Date

Event

1854

Blister rust observed in Baltic Province of Russia

1861

Blister rust observed in Finland

1865

Blister rust observed in East Germany

by 1900

Blister rust is present throughout northern Europe

1890 - 1914

Forest nurseries in France & Germany sell eastern white pine seedlings to North American foresters

1906

SCHIZOPHRENIA EPIGENESIS? INTRODUCTION A principal ...
molecular aspects of schizophrenia continues unfettered, motivated by a positive assessment of the classic twin and adoption studies.1 Just why is that? A likely .
http://www.public.asu.edu/~jrobert6/PDFs/Robert_Schizophrenia_Epigenesis2000.pdf

1909

Blister rust observed on seedlings in several locations along the eastern coast of North America

1921

Blister rust observed on western coast of North America in Vancouver, British Colombia

1923

Disease spreads eastward into Idaho

1926

Blister rust first observed on a high elevation pine (twin and adoption studies in schizophreniabark pine)

1927

Disease spreads into northwestern Montana

1929

Disease spreads to southern Oregon

1939

Disease observed in Glacier National Park

1941

Disease spreads to the northern Sierra Nevada mountains in California

1945

Disease reaches southern Idaho

1961

Disease spreads to the southern Sierra Nevada mountains in California

1967

Blister rust observed on foxtail pine in northern California

1970

Disease spreads to New Mexico (southwestern white pine) and southern Wyoming (limber pine)

1998

Disease observed in Northern Colorado (limber pine)

2003

Genes, environment and schizophrenia
Background Data from family, twin and adoption studies show over whelming evidence of a substantial genetic component in schizophrenia and although .
http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/178/40/s18.full

Source: 86, 127

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